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The geology courses for a Baccalaureus Scientiae degree at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University are as follows:


  • GGL111: Introduction to the Earth
    • Geologic time and the rock record.
    • The Universe, star evolution.
    • The solar system, accretion of the Earth
    • Structure of the Earth.
    • Continental drift and plate tectonics.

  • GGL112: Mineralogy and petrology
    • Introduction to minerals and rocks.

  • GGL113: Physical geology
    • Geologic processes.

  • GGL114: Structural and Economic geology
    • Introduction to major South African mineral resources.
    • Introduction to deformation features in rocks; folds, faults, cleavage and joints.


  • GGL201: Palaeontology
    • Principles of palaeontology, classification, morphology and ecology of selected invertebrates, vertebrates and plants.

  • GGL 202: Structural geology
    • Principles of rock deformation.
    • Folds, faults, joints, foliation and lineation.

  • GGL 203: Optical Mineralogy
    • Identification of common rock-forming minerals by means of optical microscopy.

  • GGL 204: sedimentary petrology
    • Sedimentary processes.
    • Sediment classification, minerals, textures and structures of sedimentary rocks.
    • Diagenesis in sediments.


  • GGL 301: Igneous petrology
    • Origin of igneous rocks.
    • Phase equilibria.
    • Review of major igneous rock types.

  • GGL 302: Stratigraphy
    • Principles of stratigraphy.
    • Review of selected South African stratigraphic units.

  • GGL 303:Geotectonics and metamorphic petrology
    • The earth's interior.
    • Elements of global geophysics; seismology, geomagnetics, gravity.
    • Lithosphere and asthenosphere.
    • Continental drift, sea-floor spreading, plate tectonics
    • Origin of metamorphic rocks.
    • Metamorphic facies.

  • GGL 304: Economic geology
    • Ores associated with igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
    • Selected stratabound and stratiform deposits.
    • Residual ores.
    • Exploration methods.